THE HIDDEN SECRETS THAT WILL HELP YOU LEARN ENGLISH IN A WEEKEND

Since you can read English, you could strive to perfect it in one weekend. It will not be easy to learn everything there is to learn in a weekend but if you work hard enough, it can be done. However, implement what you learn is probably the hardest part.

Speak English daily
Do not slip up and start using your native language. Even when you are with your own people, speak in English. If you do not have any way to speak English outside, do it at home. Watch T.V. or read a book and repeat out loud. Not speaking English will not help you learn. You have to use it to remember it!

Study it
Everyday, for at least one hour, study the language. Study the words, the history of the words, learn the grammatical rules etc. Even if you spend only half an hour a day, that will work. Think of your English skills as a piece of iron that will rust and break apart if you do not study and oil it.

Goals
Setting goals for yourself is a good way to learn English. Pick common everyday words, and decide to use them regularly by the end of the week or month. You could set any goal you want. This would also turn learning English into a challenge with yourself.

ENGLISH WRITING - IMPROVEMENT TRICKS AND TIPS

As I said earlier, a language has four components – Reading, listening, speaking and writing. Each of these components is complementary to each other. Once you know how to listen, read and speak English, it is time to finish the process by writing properly.

Writing is probably the easiest to do; however one can make mistakes in spellings. Also, a person thinks and writes at different speeds and that could unintentionally ruin the sentence. Still, writing is not all that easy. Problems arise when it comes to punctuation marks.

Write, write, write!
Just like reading and expanding your vocabulary, writing properly involves a lot of practice. Pick a topic, and start writing. Do this exercise everyday. Make a portfolio of all your pieces and review them in a month and look for mistakes that you made. Once you are done, ask a friend to edit it for you.

Learn the correct version
Once you have figured out your mistakes, make it a point to learn the correct version.
Incorporate the corrected version in your next piece of writing exercise.

MOST USED ENGLISH VOCABULARY IMPERATIVE TO LEARN

English has an extensive vocabulary. It is loaded with homophones, homonyms, and homographs.

Homonyms – Words with same spellings and pronunciations but different meanings
Homophones – Words that sound similar but have different spellings and meaning
Homographs – Words that are spelled the same but have different pronunciations and meanings

HOMOPHONES
1. Advise – Advise is a verb. For example: I advise you to bring bottled water.
Advice – Advice is a noun. For example: I need your advice.
2. Affect – Affect is a verb, which means, “to influence”. For example: The injury won’t affect her performance.
Effect – Effect is a noun, that means “the outcome or result”. When used as
a verb ‘effect’ means, “to produce a result”. For example: The song had a
calming effect on the baby.
3. Allude – Allude is a verb, which meaning “calling attention to indirectly”. It is a ‘coy’. For example: The paintings allude to Rembrandt. Elude – Elude means to evade or get away from something. For example: Michael Scofield eluded the cops.

SOME QUICK STEPS TO LEARN ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Grammar can be pesky and annoying. It is not easy to learn because there are so many rules that simply do not make sense. For example, the pronunciations of ‘cat’ as ‘kat’ and ‘price’ as ‘prise’, does not make sense.

Grammar can be defined as a set of notions about the correct use of a language.

English Grammar is extensive. The words can be distinguished into nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions.

A little introduction into the basics of Grammar is important so that you understand how things work.

Nouns
In the simplest form, a noun is used to identify a name, place, animal or thing. It is also the largest English word class. Noun phrases are sentences that function as nouns. For example: The Eiffel Tower is in Paris.

Pronouns
Pronouns function in place of nouns and noun phrases. These include personal pronouns, interrogative pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, and relative pronouns. For example, I, you, we, she, he, they are all pronouns. For example: They stabbed him in the back.

SIMPLE TECHNIQUES FOR MEMORIZING EXTENSIVE VOCABULARY, PHRASES AND IDIOMS

The hardest part is memorizing all those new words!

It has to be done though. You cannot hope to master the language successfully without learning the words and phrases that make it up.

The best way to expand your vocabulary and knowledge of idioms is through reading. Hence, making that list of new words is important! However, watching English movies will give you a bigger knowledge of idioms and phrases.

Now, when you build your English vocabulary as well as stock of phrases and idioms, you can disintegrate your learning into two levels:

Fundamental level: There are 2000 to 2500 words which are called the foundation blocks of English language. These words are not particularly listed but comprise of each first word for every meaning that you learn to the count. These include certain words like how, why, where which are not replaceable by another word. For phrases and idioms, the cardinal ones will fall in the fundamental category.

Extensive level: Every word, phrase or idiom with similar or opposite meaning and intent as of the fundamental ones will form the extensive list for a more in-depth learning.

Tips for expanding vocabulary:

● One word at a time
Do not try to learn the entire dictionary in a weekend. That will not do you any good! Start small. Once you find a new word, incorporate it in your daily use.
● Spend every spare minute reading
Read, read, and read! Books will expand your vocabulary to a large extent. Pay close attention to what you are reading. If you do not understand a word, use a dictionary to find its meaning.
● Context skills
Usually, while reading it is easy to decipher the meaning of a word from the sentence it is used in i.e. the context. In this sentence, you can figure out that the word ‘decipher’ means to understand or convert into normal language. If you come across a word that you cannot completely understand, before turning to the dictionary, trying figuring out what the word could mean. Then, you can
cross check with the dictionary to see if you were right. This will build your context skills and it is important in English because a lot of words are similar and pronounced in the same way. Some words even have the same spelling but mean something completely different
● Practice
Of course, practice makes perfect. Use the new vocabulary you have, or you might forget it before you even get a chance to use it. After learning a word and understanding the context it is used in, make it a point to put that word in your sentences.
● Use the dictionary
I know I said do not learn the dictionary in a day, but skimming through it and picking out words that fascinate you is a good exercise. Learn these words and use them so you get used to the context they are used in.
● Play with words
Play games like scrabble or words with friends or ruzzle. These games can increase your vocabulary in a fun way. Ask friends to help you along the way. Since these games have a competitive twist, you intend to learn new words faster. Even Pictionary is a good game to learn new words. Since you are
drawing the words out, the meaning of the word stays with you.
● Crosswords
Make it a point to do the crossword every day. They can be a little overwhelming but with a little help, one can usually manage to complete the whole thing. They not only give you new words as you go through the thesaurus, but you general knowledge also expands. I think this is a brilliant
exercise for learning a language.
● Write a journal
Start a written journal where you pen down your thoughts in English. This way you can practice writing as well. Remember to use the words you learned that day.
● Listen
When others speak, listen! Observe how native English speaker use their words. Do not hesitate in asking what they mean if you don’t understand something. When you learn listen, you will also learn the usage of idioms, phrases, slang and colloquialisms. This will make you more fluent as well as
understandable.
● Associations
When you learn a new word, associate it with something so that you have an easier time recalling it later. It could be a colour, a feeling, another word, or anything else. For example, ‘quintessential’ – one of my favorite words – means ‘the perfect example of something’. You can associate it with your
favorite dish, your favorite actress or actor, your parents. Use these associations to remember the word.
● Make a list of words
In a diary you keep with you, make a list of all the words you come across in a day. When you get home or in your free time, open a dictionary and find the meanings of each word you collected.
● Learn the roots
Make it a point to learn the roots of the words. This is an interesting way to remember the words. Mostly every word in English has roots in either Latin or Greek. It is fun to learn how the word came about. Languages keep evolving, so a word that meant something in the 17th century would not mean
the same today.
● Use the word
Again, this point is so important that I am repeating is over and over again. If you do not use the words you learn, you will forget them. Learn to use the words. Make is a habit.
● Prefixes and suffixes
English has a lot of words that use prefixes and suffixes. A prefix is a word that is added before another word. A suffix on the other hand is a morpheme that is added to the end of a word.


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EASY METHODS FOR IMPROVING ENGLISH READING SKILLS

Learning how to read is an important part of learning English. It expands your vocabulary and gives you fluency. If you are in a country where English is the main language, you will not get by without learning how to read. Also, reading is substantially easier than speaking and writing, or even listening.

● Remember to always read a book that is of your level. Do not get ambitious and read a book above your level because that would involve words that you will not understand.

Reading English can get downright weird! Why? ‘Read’ and ‘read’ have the same spelling but different meanings as well as pronunciations. ‘Read’ is pronounced as ‘reed’, which is in present tense while ‘read’ is pronounced as ‘red’, which is in the past tense.

A few steps for you to start improving your reading skills are explained below.

Decide what you want to read
Preferably, you should stick to reading a book that is your level. Do not decide to read Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë. You can do that when you have successfully mastered the language. That novel will not disappoint! You can read children’s books, newspapers, comics, or anything else. Once you have decided, go pick up the books from the library or bookshop.

HOW TO STRENGTHEN ENGLISH LISTENING HABITS

Now, in order to strengthen your English listening habits for an extra leverage, let us take a look at the three types of listening one must indulge into and further ways to improving your skills in each.

Type 1: Passive or Inactive Listening

Passive listening plays a dormant role in the communication process. The listener simply listens and absorbs the meaning of the language and is not expected to react or put his views across. As a foreign learner, passive listening allows you to acquaint the verbal form of speech and take time to assimilate what you listen. It is the most comfortable way of taking massive input. Here are some important aspects you can instill to maximise learning from passive listening:

Focus on understanding each word in individual sense and in correlation with the constructed sentences. Do not deviate your concentration in putting emphasis on preconception of the context while listening.

● Rehearse and summarise in your mind what you comprehended from the speech as an aftermath.
● Take note on how vocabulary is used interchangeably to get a hand on varied ways of expressive ability.
● If possible, pen down the main frame of sentences in short hand for further reference.
● Keep observation on the pauses used while conveying the emotion of the context. There are clause, sentence and paragraph pauses in conversational speech in a rhythmic pattern which you must focus on while listening English.

WAYS TO LEVERAGE YOUR ENGLISH LISTENING HABITS

The English Language has a lot of slang, colloquialisms and idioms. The only way to master these is by listening. Listening will improve your speaking capabilities hugely.

You will learn the correct pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, accent, and intonation.

One can apply what you hear in your daily life.

● Make it a point to listen to the radio, or T.V. while doing random chores.
All human beings learn a language by listening. Make sure you watch a movie without subtitles.

● Singing is a great fun way to improve your pronunciation. It can also develop fluency.
Remember, developing your English listening skill is not only important to learn to language. It is also important because a person is not going to repeat himself over and over waiting for you to understand. Watching a movie without subtitles will teach you how to keep up with what a person is saying.

● Role-playing also helps in improving speech. Watch an English movie that you are fond of over and over again till you understand it complete, and then enact the movie yourself. Repeat this exercise with another movie. This will not only improve your speech, it will also improve your ability to listen.

Listening and repeating is the best way to learn a language. I know people who have learned a complete language perfectly just by watching the movies and listening to the songs. Of course, this works better if the language you are trying to learn is closer to your own native language. However, remember that English is a mix of a number of different languages.


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STEP BY STEP IN LEARNING ENGLISH

“Do It Right Now”: Steps to Start Improving instantly

LEVEL 1

Step 1: Watch an English movie twice and concentrate on how a person speaks
Step 2: On a piece of paper, note down all idioms and colloquialisms you come across
Step 3: Look up their meanings
Step 4: Make your own sentences and try incorporating them in your everyday life

LEVEL 2

Step 1: Watch an English movie
Step 2: Make an honest list of all the words that you thought were pronounced in a different way.
Step 3: By the end of the movie, if your list is small, your pronunciation is not so bad.

However, if your list is long, you need to work on pronouncing those words. Step 4: If you are not sure about the pronunciation, use the help of Internet tools or download a dictionary app on your phone to help with correct yourself.


LEVEL 3

Step 1: Pick an English book or topic over the internet of your interest
Step 2: Keep a dictionary, pen and a paper alongside
Step 3: Scan, skim and start reading the text out loud in a subtle speech
Step 4: Break the words that are difficult to pronounce at one go into sounds and speak in a connecting flow. In you don't know how that particular word sounds, refer to an audio dictionary and follow. Eg: Anticipation = An - tee — see — pay — shun.
Step 5: Note down new phrases, words and expressions you come across while reading and simultaneously take meaning from the dictionary.
Step 6: On completion, review the topic in your head.
Step 7: Note the estimated time you took to read the text, number of words read and as a trend, try and speed up with every third time you read.

LEVEL 4

Step 1: Pick a subject or a noun
Step 2: Look for words and descriptive phrases in the dictionary which can describe or narrate about the subject
Step 3: Note down the relevant words with it’s meaning/s, synonyms and antonyms
Step 4: Now, using those words, construct descriptive sentences about the subject and place phrases in the right sequence.
Step 5: Repeat the process with other topics, objects and nouns.


LEVEL 5

Step 1: Pick an English book or newspaper to read
Step 2: Keep a pen and paper with your. Preferably a small notebook specifically for components of Grammar
Step 3: While reading, go one paragraph at a time and note down the nouns, verbs, adjective and adverbs that you come across
Step 4:Try making your own sentences using these words
Step 5: Repeat the same process for the next paragraph

LEVEL 6

Step 1: Keep a pocket notebook with yourself all the time
Step 2: Concentrate on people’s speech
Step 3: Pick out words that have noticed as homophones, homonyms, and homographs
Step 4: Categorize these words in difference sections
Step 5: Find their different meanings and uses


LEVEL 7

Step 1: Pick a topic that interests you and are passionate about
Step 2: Start a blog based on the topic


LEVEL 8

Step 1: Pick a topic that is trending
Step 2: Decide on your opinion on the topic
Step 3: Prepare a speech on a pen and paper
Step 4: In a gathering of friends or family, make this speech!


LEVEL 9

Step 1: Go on the Internet and look common mistakes made while learning English for your native language
Step 2: Keep a pen and paper besides you
Step 3: Write down all the mistakes you have been making
Step 4: Understand the correct way to use the words or phrases
Step 5: Make your own sentences using these words and phrase




DISCLAIMER: Some of the photos, links are not owned by the site, and/ or not being stored by the site. Comments are views expressed by the readers www.dailydoseofeverything.blogspot.com may not be held liable for the views of readers exercising their right of freedom to express. If you think we should remove those aforementioned elements due to copyright infrequent, feel free to tell us, and we will comply.

HOW TO SPEAK ENGLISH FLUENTLY

Fluency is the ability to speak a language with ease, without any hiccups! Now, you must be wondering what I mean by ‘without any hiccups’. Do not take that literally! It is an idiom. An idiom is a group of words whose actual meaning is different from the literal meaning. ‘Without any hiccups’ does not mean speaking a language without suffering from a bout of hiccups, what it means is speaking a language without stopping and stuttering, and being unsure of how to use your words. Fluency means knowing how to use your words with ease and comfort.

Fluency comes with practice. You cannot study every “How to speak English” book and expect to be fluent in the language. Practice is a must! Also, if you think you read well and so you must be fluent as well, you are mistaken! Reading and speaking are very different.

The thing with leaning English is that you need not concentrate on the grammar while speaking. Concentrate on conversing. English is a weird language with a lot of loopholes.

HISTORY OF ENGLISH

English is a beautiful language. In fact, any language you decide to learn is a beautiful one. However, learning a brand new language is not always easy. Lucky for you, English is not considered to be the most difficult language! Now, if you decided to learn Chinese – that would take some time.

With around 430 million people around the world speaking English – and these are only people with English as their first language – your decision to learn it is a good one! It is considered the ‘universal language’.

English was brought to Britain from Germany and Netherlands. It originated from West Germanic Language and the Anglo-Frisian dialect. It has gone through various phases of evolution. There are huge difference between Old English, Middle English and Modern English. Middle English came about after the invasion of the German and the Norman’s.

The language you are about to learn has a lot of German, Greek, Latin, Spanish, Hindi, French and Old Norse, just to name a few. It is a mix of languages. A huge number of words have originated from Greek and Latin.

WHAT IS PLATONIC FRIENDSHIPS

It’s not just a song. We all need a little help from our friends. If not now, tomorrow. Or the day after. Or the year after. Some people never realize it until it’s too late. They invest in stocks, bonds, or real estate thinking money is going to give them the security and happiness they seek. Sadly, they neglect the most important investment of their lives—time spent finding, making, and nurturing true friendships and true lasting love relationships.

Sometimes we are a nation of blockheads so blinded by sex, that we don’t see the true love for the birds and the bees. (Not that there’s anything wrong with the birds and the bees—we’re going
to talk about those captivating little critters. But with no myths, no false magic.) We’re going to get real about love and sex. Because all too often the lovebird sings sweet lies, and the bee stings too
hard. We’re also going to talk about friendship because, as we mature, same-sex and other-sex nonsexual friends take on an increasingly important role in our lives.

Friends, Lovers, and Knights

“I get by with a little help from my friends.” —John Lennon

HOW TO REMOVE SUGAR FROM YOUR DIET

Start Reading Nutritional Information on Labels!

Our addiction to sugar comes at a cost to our health. The onset of diabetes and heart disease are all too common with the foods available to us today. It's possible to prevent the onset of these enemies of society by watching what we eat. You will understand why it is important to lower sugars in your diet
and exactly how you can achieve this.

You will learn to identify the pitfalls in modern foods and how to go on and apply this to your everyday life. Do you want to lose weight, manage your diabetes, lower cholesterol, lower your blood
pressure and be full of energy? Dramatically cutting down on sugars in your diet will allow you to succeed. By eating more natural foods high in nutrition, it will be possible to cut the cravings and feel
satisfied with the food you eat. When you learn to remove harmful high sugar, high carb foods from your diet, and also substitute natural sugar foods in moderation your body will love you for it!

This is the sensible approach to eating sugars, because realistically there will always small amounts of sugar in our diets. By learning where the hidden dangers lie, it is easy to be savvy about it and change our eating habits to make good decisions what we eat. Even some natural foods need to be eaten in moderation, so we'll discuss that too.

WHAT ARE THE WONDERS OF TEA

It’s been called the plant of Heaven.
For 4,000 years, it’s been valued both as a medicine and a drink for pleasure.

Tea
Originally, tea referred to one species of shrub that was cultivated in China— Camellia sinensis—known as the black tea shrub.

A charming legend tells how this ordinary plant became the first natural wonder in the world of herbal teas. The story takes us back to ancient China in 2737 B.C. when one day, Emperor Shen Nung was kneeling before a fire, heating water. Suddenly a wind stirred. Leaves fluttered down from a branch over his head and fell into the boiling water. The aroma captivated Shen Nung and he decided to taste the brew.

Where did these aromatic leaves come from? An ancient wild species of the black tea shrub. When the leaves are fermented, they produce oolong or black tea, but when they are brewed fresh, as in Shen Nung’s tea, they yield the refreshing green tea, which contains the potent antioxidant catechin, a bioflavonoid with antibacterial and anticancer properties.

WHAT TO LOOK FOR WHEN PURCHASING ESSENTIAL OILS

At this point, you know that in order to reap the full benefits of truly natural oils, you should shop for the most natural botanical matter available. A general starting point when purchasing essential oils is to look for pure, undiluted, 100 percent oils.

The following tips should help you have a pleasant shopping experience:

• Keep in mind that because the term “essential oils” is overused in aromatherapy, poor quality oils extracted from poor quality plants and flowers, or oils that are stored poorly and for too long, can still be labeled as essential oils. It is always a good idea to avoid oils stored in clear glass bottles that allow in light, because light is a known enemy to essential oils.
• Essential oil retailers are very common and some are driven only by the need to turn a quick profit — regardless of the effect these oils can have on you and your health. You should be wary of retailers that advertise that they sell to the food and beverage or perfume industries, which require consistent aromas. Consistent aromas can only be created in a laboratory, rendering them non-essential and less therapeutic.
• Do not be overly impressed with words such as perfume oil, fragrance oil, or nature-identical oil because these are most often synthetic oils that are created in a lab and blended with varied but small essential oil amounts. One such retailer, Aloha Bay of Lower Lake, California, has stopped using the label “nature identical” because the company found it to be misleading. The company now prefers to label these oils “nature-identical synthetic scents blended with essential oils” because that is, after all, what they are.

WHAT ARE THE PRECAUTIONS WHEN USING ESSENTIAL OILS

You should make sure to exercise appropriate caution when working with concentrated essential oils. Aromatherapy experts recommend that before attempting essential oil extraction or use, you should have basic knowledge of the oil’s qualities, including its scent. Knowing the oil’s qualities can help protect children, pregnant or lactating women, and those with underlying illnesses or sensitive skin.

There are a number of “never dos” to observe with essential oils:

• Never use them undiluted.
Using undiluted essential oils can cause permanent skin sensitization, which means becoming allergic to that particular essential oil. In the book Essential Oils and Aromatics: A Step-by-Step Guide for Use in Massage and Aromatherapy, Marge Clark, an author and aromatherapy expert who is well quoted in aromatherapy and herbal media stories, shares a personal experience that serves as a great cautionary tale. She shares how she used undiluted lavender oil on broken skin and now suffers from contact dermatitis, a skin sensitivity reaction, if she comes into contact with any form of lavender.

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SYNTHETIC AND PURE ESSENTIAL OILS

The pure essential oils discussed in this book vary greatly in chemical structure from synthetic essential oils. Pure essential oils come exclusively from plant matter with naturally occurring properties, but synthetic oils contain animal matter, synthetically created oil properties, and naturally occurring oil properties. Using chemical solvents like alcohol is a popular way to create synthetic oil properties. Once chemical solvents have been introduced to plant matter such as leaves or flowers in the extraction process, the occurring oil is called an absolute and is not really considered essential oil anymore even though it still possesses some therapeutic qualities. Aromatherapy experts say
that even the minutest synthetic component in otherwise pure oil renders it completely synthetic albeit still useful in aromatherapy.

Extraction Methods

Distillation
This is the most common extraction method for essential oils and can include steam distillation, hydrodistillation, or a combination of the two, called water and steam distillation. Water is the common denominator in distillation, but heat plays an important role as well.

WHAT EXACTLY IS AN ESSENTIAL OIL?

Think of a few dozen fresh green leaves from a blooming coriander plant in the palm of your hand. When you squeeze those leaves hard enough, a green, juicy substance will ooze onto your hand. That juicy substance is your basic, undiluted essential oil. The squeeze method of extraction, however, is not one of the methods this book will cover, because it is much more time consuming than any other method featured here. From allspice to lavender and ylang-ylang, everyday and exotic plants are the bearers of essential oils, which, despite their name, do not feel oily. They are called oils because they contain oil-soluble chemicals derived from plant matter.

The term essential oil may vary according to each user, the term refers only to the essence — the concentrated and aromatic oils derived from plants and flowers long identified for aromatherapy
uses. These oils come from plant leaves, fruits, stems, and roots and are used for a variety of purposes, including therapeutic. You may encounter warnings whenever the therapeutic qualities of essential oils are discussed, advising you not to rely on essential oils to treat serious medical conditions and to seek professional medical care in such cases.

It is probably a good idea to follow these well meant pieces of advice while also keeping in mind that essential oils make up the immune systems of some plants, helping them fight infection and repel pests. Imagine then what they can do for you.

WHAT IS NUTRITIONAL COSMETICS

Nutritional cosmetics, which is probably better known in the industry as nutricosmetics, encompasses the concept that orally ingestible dietary products may support healthier and thus more beautiful skin. This is not totally unlike the term nutraceutical; however, this latter term typically refers to foods and dietary supplements that support better overall health.

Similarly, the term cosmeceutical refers to products generally designed for topical application and which contain active ingredients with benefits for improved skin health.

The term nutricosmetics appears to borrow from the terms nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals to reflect the goal of these products, that is to provide beauty and health benefits to the skin via nutritional products consumed on a regular basis. This concept encompasses a unique amalgamation of the
nutrition and personal care industries.

More and more nutricosmetic products are reaching the retail shelves and can be found as functional beverages (e.g., NutriSoda from Andrea Beverage Co., Skin Balance Water from Borba), dietary supplements (e.g., Murad's Firm & Tone dietary supplement, Perricone's Skin & Total Body
dietary supplement), and functional foods (e.g., Danone's Essensis beauty yogurt, Ecco Bella's Chocolate Instant Bliss Beauty Bar).

HOW TO CHANGE YOUR LIFE WITH WHAT YOU THINK

Change Your Brain, Change Your Life

Change is inevitable—except from a vending machine. —ROBERT C. GALLAGHER

Can't remember the name of your doctor when you see him at the store? Forget your standing
appointment for physical therapy? Worried about Alzheimer's?

Chances are, you're not stupid, rude, nor experiencing early dementia. Instead, your brain is
frazzled: unhealthy habits, aging, long work hours, and information overload. Even with all this
stress, you're not at a brain-dead end.

That's because your brain is changing. It changes every day, even as you read this sentence.
“The principal activities of brains are making changes in themselves,” says Dr. Marvin Minsky
in his book Society of the Mind.

You can support your brain by … changing it more. When you create new connections, your brain becomes stronger. Your neurons (brain cells) get active and your brain stays plastic, able to create new neural pathways.

WHAT IS COSMETICS AND ITS CONTENT

Cosmetics deals with those aspects of the skin related to beauty. This profession concentrates
on skin care, protecting the skin, and improving its appearance. The word “cosmetic” is derived
from the Greek kosmesis (adorning), from kosmeo (to order or arrange).

Acosmetician is a person engaged in the field of cosmetics, whose work is directed toward the care, protection, and improvement in the appearance of the skin. Dermatology refers to the medical specialty of diagnosing and treating diseases of the skin, hair, and nails.

A dermatologist is a physician specializing in the various aspects of skin disease.
The term cosmetology is relatively vague and cannot always be found in dictionaries. It refers to the scientific and investigative basis of cosmetics, with its biological, chemical, and medical ramifications.

The term cosmetologist is derived from the term “cosmetology.” In its broad meaning, it refers to someone who specializes in the investigative aspects of cosmetics: he/she can be a chemist, a biologist, or a physician. However, this definition varies from one country to another.

In some countries, such as the United States, it is a formal title subjected to the regulations of each individual state. To become a cosmetologist, one has to graduate from a school of cosmetics.
In other countries, however, there is no recognized medical/professional specialty of cosmetology so, in practice, the title of “cosmetologist” may be used by anyone who decides to call himself/herself as such.

WHAT IS VITAMIN A?

Core Messages

• Vitamin A (vit. A) is essential for normal differentiation and maintenance of epithelial tissues in skin and mucous membranes, vision (retinaldehyde), reproduction (retinol), and embryonic morphogenesis.
• Retinoids (compounds with biological activities similar to those of vit. A) are used as therapeutic agents for hyperkeratotic and parakeratotic skin diseases, acne and acne-related disorders, and hand eczema. They are also used as prophylaxis for epithelial skin tumors in immune-suppressed patients and as therapy for nonmelanoma skin cancers and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
• Regular monitoring is essential for the avoidance and management of a wide range of adverse effects.


Retinoids refer to compounds that have biological activities similar to those of naturally occurring vitamin A (vit. A) but not necessarily the same chemical structure (Zouboulis and Orfanos 2000). The definition of retinoids does not include a structural homology to vit. A. Retinoids are used as therapy and prophylaxis systemically or as local applications for various skin diseases and tumors.
They are also used in the cosmetic field for acne, seborrhea, psoriasis, epithelial tumors, and hand eczema. Retinoids perform their actions through binding to retinoid receptors (RAR and RXR), members of the hormone nuclear receptor subfamily. In addition to its toxicity, a deficiency of vit. A causes skin manifestations. Owing to the wide range of adverse effects of retinoids, precautions and regular monitoring are essential for long-term therapy.

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