Considerable space & weight can be saved by not packing large, "economy-sized" containers of toiletries: small, travel-sized versions are often available at the "trial sizes" section of your pharmacy (they can also be found online at Minimus, a great source for tiny/travel sizes of all sorts of things, not just toiletries). Be aware that most travel-sized containers can be refilled; even a small toothpaste tube can generally be reused (hold it tightly mouth-to-mouth with a larger tube, and squeeze the latter). Even better — more efficient, easier (especially when creams or gels are involved), more environmentally responsible, and much cheaper in the long run — is buying in bulk and repackaging in travel containers designed for refilling.

A list of "essential" toiletries could be considerably longer than the one presented on this page; it's the area most subject to personal inclination. A good moisturizer would be on many lists, which could extend to include foundations, exfoliants, scents, conditioners, mascaras, and much more. Skin chemistries vary as widely as personal tastes, though (what is perfect for one person can be a disaster for another), thus I can offer little in the way of reliable recommendations, except as they pertain to volume & weight. Both of these can be all too rapidly inflated by cosmetics, so always strive to seek out non-liquid solutions.

 toothbrush, cap, tooth cleaner, floss
A cap for your toothbrush will keep it clean, allow it to dry easily, and — if you get the type with an attached suction cup — let you hang it on the nearest mirror or similar surface, and not have to look for a sanitary storage spot.

Traditional tooth powder works just fine, and will save you more space, weight, and security hassles than pastes and gels. Don't try to shake tooth powder directly onto your toothbrush, as you'll end up wasting a fair bit. Instead, dispense some into the cup of your palm, and pick it up with a damp toothbrush.

In addition to its intended use, dental floss serves a myriad of other functions, challenged only by the sarong and bandanna for multi-use potential. It makes excellent heavy-duty thread for all kinds of darning and other repair work (make sure you carry an appropriate needle); the cutter on the box is handy for regular thread as well (airplane knitters take note). Tightly-knotted floss (especially the waxed kind) being generally quite difficult to untie, it can also be used as a temporary luggage "lock", to discourage pilferage. In fact, it handles a variety of tying chores, securing pants legs (when riding rented bicycles or caught in bad weather), replacing a broken shoelace, and securing a plastic bag over a wine bottle as an impromptu cork. Floss also makes a superb slicing tool, and can be used to cut items such as cheese, cake, pastry, and cold butter (even an umbilical cord, should you happen to give birth in your hotel room one day); for this reason, don't be tempted to use it to replace a broken necklace string, this being something you want to break under conditions of stress, not act as a cutting instrument! Other emergency uses include: clothesline, ukulele string, and broken toilet tank chain substitute. Want to hang one of those "hookless hotel hangers" in the shower stall? Tie it up with floss. Finally, if a dripping faucet is keeping you awake, tie one end of a length of floss around the spout, put the other end in the drain, and arrange things so that the water flows quietly along the floss, rather than forming drops!

razor, blades, shaving oil/cream
Some hardy souls use soap, but my fair, sensitive skin demands something with more lubricative value. A remarkably effective alternative to a (bulky, often aerosol) container of shaving cream is shaving oil, a tiny (smaller than your thumb) 1/4-ounce plastic bottle of which will — at about three drops per shave — last for up to 90 shaves. Sounds unlikely, but it works surprising well (oil being the best lubricant, after all), and also eliminates the need for after-shave lotions.

I first discovered shaving oil in the 1990s, and haven't bought a can of shaving cream/gel/foam since. So it's not just a travel aid, but a truly better overall approach to shaving. I've tried several brands; most work well, though my personal favourite (pictured at right) comes from England, and its supplier (David Somerset) makes it convenient to purchase via credit card and the Internet. Give yourself a week to get used to it; you'll want to rinse the blade a bit more frequently than you're used to (oil "clings" more than creams/gels/foams, one of the characteristics that makes it work so well). I'll be surprised if you ever go back to those giant cans of environment-damaging chemicals.

Don't hesitate to shave in cold water: a surprisingly large number of people (myself included) do so by choice, and there are good arguments for the practice (for one, see Shaving Made Easy, page 51). It's certainly better for your skin, and actually quite refreshing, though some may find that it takes getting used to.
In the absence of the no-longer-produced AVID4 Shaving System (the perfect travel razor), inexpensive disposable razors are probably the best alternative. And don't be in too great a hurry to toss them out: you can hone (as opposed to "sharpen") one — in much the same way as is done by old-fashioned razor strops — on your own arm. Whenever you find the blade(s) getting a bit dull, simply run them (in the non-cutting direction!) along the outside of your forearm, from wrist to elbow, about a dozen times. This can significantly extend the life of a razor, and is a trick well worth knowing.

comb and/or hairbrush
I list these items primarily for nostalgic reasons in my own case, but many will find them useful.
shampoo, bar soap & container

Consider my advice concerning travelling with liquids. J.R Liggett's Old-Fashioned Bar Shampoo (pictured at left) is a travel favourite, and comes in several formulations. A 3.5 ounce (100g) bar is roughly equivalent to a 24 ounce (680g) bottle of shampoo.

Soap is pretty much universally available, so only rarely an item that you'll consider packing. When you do, though, you'll want a watertight container of some sort in which to store it. A Ziploc® bag will suffice, but can get pretty messy; special soap containers are a more prudent choice.

Again, factor in the liabilities of travelling with liquids, and consider a solid variety.

nail clippers
Try to find stainless steel ones (at good cutlery stores) if you're bound for humid climates. Also, when buying a toenail clipper, be sure to get the proper type (as pictured at right): aside from being larger, toenail clippers are supposed to be different from the fingernail variety, with convex cutters rather than concave ones. Some manufacturers seem not to understand this, to the detriment of your toenails.
Here's another reason to carry decent toenail clippers: in the absence of a knife, or appropriate pair of scissors, they provide an excellent way to conquer sealed plastic packaging (like the bank vault in which they've encased the camera memory card you just bought), and the nylon cable tie used to re-fasten your checked bag after they've ensured that you no longer carry a knife with which to open it!

Avoid glass (heavy and prone to breakage); look for one made of thin acrylic.

viscose towel (washcloth?)

Viscose, which is derived from cellulosic sources (wood pulp, cotton), has a highly amorphous polymer system (as well as polar polymers), making it the most absorbent fibre in common use, thus an ideal basis for a high-efficiency towel. Originally developed in 1983 by Pacific Dry Goods, but now produced by MSR, the classic Packtowl® Original (92% viscose/8% polypropylene, and pictured here) comes in a variety of sizes. It's lightweight and packs small, yet soaks up an astounding nine times its weight in water (the large size will hold a full liter of fluid), even when damp (unlike, say, terrycloth, which becomes effectively useless when wet, and — being cotton — takes a long time to dry). Further, you can release 90% of that water merely by wringing the towel out. It dries quickly as well (if still damp when you need to depart for your next destination, simply pack it in a Ziploc® bag and hang it out to dry when you arrive). Viscose towels may not look like much, or feel particularly soft (they initially resemble a piece of rather stiff felt, though become softer and more "towel-like" — and more absorbent — after each washing), but they're much more effective than other types of "travel towels". They can be machine washed (no bleaching or ironing), and air or machine dried. And they can be cut to preferred sizes, without worrying about the edges unravelling.

Viscose is also biodegradable, and the brand I recommend is produced in an eco-friendly fashion.
Be aware that most products sold as "travel towels" are not viscose, but rather some sort of synthetic microfibre. Even the MSR Packtowl brand includes non-viscose forms: their Personal and UltraLite versions are made of polyester/nylon blends (85/15 and 70/30 respectively). These feel softer to the touch (which makes them more appealing, thus easily sold), but are considerably less effective when it comes to absorbing water; they are also more expensive, and slower to dry. So I strongly recommend that you avoid the hype, and get one (or more) of the viscose versions (i.e., the Packtowl Original). Remember that — for any type of towel — darker colours dry faster than lighter ones.

A small viscose towel (or even a piece cut from a larger one) also makes a good washcloth, an item fairly uncommon outside of North America. If you prefer an exfoliating washcloth (I find them too abrasive), the quick-drying Japanese "Salux" brand is a good travel choice; a related item is the Buf-Puf facial sponge, which comes in regular, gentle, and extra gentle versions.

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